IOTD *Special Edition* Happy Halloween



Calendar day; October 31, 2015

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Saturday, the 31st of October, 2015 is the 304th day in 2015 and in the 44th calendar week.
General Events:
World Cities Day
October 31, 2015 in the World
The United Nations has designated every 31st of October as World Cities Day.
The aim of World Cities Day is to promote the international community’s interest in global urbanisation, encourage cooperation among countries in meeting opportunities and addressing challenges in urbanisation towards sustainable urban development.
Only in its second year, this important day marks the end of Urban October. This is when, for one month, there is a dedication to raising awareness and promoting the idea of engagement in the international community towards a New Urban Agenda.
Where is World Cities Day?
National UNICEF Day
October 31, 2015 in Canada
National UNICEF Day is celebrated on October 31st. UNICEF is the world’s leading child-focused humanitarian organization, working in 192 countries throughout the world.
At UNICEF, we believe that every child, regardless of circumstances or socioeconomic background, has the right to grow and thrive. Tragically, every year, millions of children’s lives are cut short by entirely preventable causes. Many of these deaths come as a result of treatable illnesses, malnutrition, poor hygiene and lack of safe water and sanitation.
UNICEF believes that all children, regardless of gender, culture, religion and socio-economic background, have the right to grow up in safety. Our programs address every aspect of child protection worldwide – from armed violence reduction, to child trafficking, to female genital mutilation, to psychosocial support for children in conflict zones.
This Halloween, join our National UNICEF Day campaign and celebrate 60 years of helping children by organizing a fundraising campaign at your school! National UNICEF Day has helped over 28.5 million children over the years get access to a quality education. But with nearly 58 million children currently out of school, our work is far from over.
Where is National UNICEF Day?
Nationwide Canada
Samhain 2015
October 31 to November 1, 2015 in the World
Samhain is observed on October 31, 2015. Samhain is a Gaelic festival marking the end of the harvest season and the beginning of winter or the “darker half” of the year. Most commonly it is held on 31 October – 1 November, or halfway between the autumn equinox and the winter solstice. Along with Imbolc, Beltane and Lughnasadh it makes up the four Gaelic seasonal festivals. It was observed in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man.
Kindred festivals were held at the same time of year in other Celtic lands. Samhain is still celebrated as a cultural festival by some (though it has mostly been replaced by Halloween) and, since the 20th century, has been celebrated as a religious festival by Celtic neopagans and Wiccans. Neopagans in the Southern Hemisphere often celebrate Samhain at the other end of the year (~30 April – 1 May). Some Neopagans celebrate it at the astronomical midpoint between the autumn equinox and winter solstice (or the full moon nearest this point).
In the Northern Hemisphere, this midpoint is when the ecliptic longitude of the Sun reaches 225 degrees. Samhain is mentioned in some of the earliest Irish literature. Many important events in Irish mythology happen or begin on Samhain. It was popularized as the “Celtic New Year” from the late 19th century, following Sir John Rhys and Sir James Frazer.
Where is Samhain?
Hop-tu-Naa 2015
October 31, 2015 in Isle of Man
Hop-tu-Naa is observed on October 31, 2015. Hop-tu-Naa is a Celtic festival celebrated in the Isle of Man. Predating Halloween, it is the celebration of the original New Year’s Eve. For modern Hop-tu-Naa, children dress up and go from house to house with the hope of being given sweets or money, as elsewhere. However, the children carry carved “turnip” lanterns rather than pumpkins and sing Hop-tu-naa songs. In older times, children would have also brought the stumps of turnips with them and batter the doors of those who refused to give them any money, in an ancient form of trick or treat. This practice appears to have died out.
Where is Hop-tu-Naa?
Nationwide Isle of Man
Halloween 2015
October 31, 2015 in the World
Halloween is an annual holiday celebrated on October 31. It has roots in the Celtic festival of Samhain and the Christian holy day of All Saints, but is today largely a secular celebration. Halloween activities include trick-or-treating, wearing costumes and attending costume parties, carving jack-o’-lanterns, ghost tours, bonfires, apple bobbing, visiting haunted attractions, pranks, telling scary stories, and watching horror films.
The word Halloween is first attested in the 16th century and represents a Scottish variant of the fuller All-Hallows-Eve, that is, the night before All Hallows Day. Although the phrase All Hallows is found in Old English (the feast of all saints), All-Hallows-Even is itself not attested until 1556. Thus there is no evidence of the term for this day before the 16th century Reformation.
Halloween is not celebrated in all countries and regions of the world, and among those that do the traditions and importance of the celebration vary significantly. Celebration in the United States has had a significant impact on how the holiday is observed in other nations. This larger American influence, particularly in iconic and commercial elements, has extended to places such as South America, Europe, to Japan under the auspices of the Japanese Biscuit Association, and other parts of East Asia
Where is Halloween?
Hallowmas 2015
October 31 to November 2, 2015 in the World
Hallowmas takes place on October 31, 2015. Hallowmas, also known as the Triduum of All Hallows (Triduum of All Saints), is the triduum encompassing the Western Christian observances of All Hallows’ Eve, All Saints’ Day and All Soul’s Day, which last from October 31 to November 2 annually. These dates of Hallowmas were established in the 8th century AD.
Where is Hallowmas?
Day of the Dead
October 31 to November 2, 2015 in Mexico
Day of the Dead is celebrated from October 31 till November 02, 2015. Day of the Dead (Spanish: Día de Muertos) is a Mexican holiday celebrated throughout Mexico and around the world in other cultures. The holiday focuses on gatherings of family and friends to pray for and remember friends and family members who have died. It is particularly celebrated in Mexico, where it is a national holiday, and all banks are closed.
The celebration takes place on November 1 and 2, in connection with the Catholic holidays of All Saints’ Day and All Souls’ Day. Traditions connected with the holiday include building private altars honoring the deceased using sugar skulls, marigolds, and the favorite foods and beverages of the departed and visiting graves with these as gifts. They also leave possessions of the deceased. Scholars trace the origins of the modern Mexican holiday to indigenous observances dating back hundreds of years and to an Aztec festival dedicated to the goddess Mictecacihuatl.
The holiday has spread throughout the world: In Brazil, Dia de Finados is a public holiday that many Brazilians celebrate by visiting cemeteries and churches. In Spain, there are festivals and parades, and, at the end of the day, people gather at cemeteries and pray for their dead loved ones. Similar observances occur elsewhere in Europe, and similarly themed celebrations appear in many Asian and African cultures.
Where is Day of the Dead?
Nationwide Mexico
Beggars Night
October 31, 2015 in the USA
Beggars Night, or more properly Beggars’ Night, is a regional term for the Halloween-related activity that is referred to in most parts of the United States as “Trick or Treat”. Specifically, the term is broadly but not exclusively used in Ohio, and in many parts of Iowa, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Wisconsin and western New York.
Where is the event?
Nationwide USA
Carve a Pumpkin Day
October 31, 2015 in the World
Carve a Pumpkin Day is observed on October 31, 2015. Pumpkins are commonly carved into decorative lanterns called jack-o’-lanterns for the Halloween season in North America. The practice of craving pumpkins for Halloween orginated from an Irish myth about a man name “Stingy Jack”. In the United States, the carved pumpkin was first associated with the harvest season in general, long before it became an emblem of Halloween.
Sections of the pumpkin are cut out to make holes, often depicting a face, which may be either cheerful, scary, or comical. A variety of tools can be used to carve and hollow out the gourd, ranging from simple knives and spoons to specialized instruments, typically sold in holiday sections of North American grocery stores. Printed stencils can be used as a guide for increasingly complex designs.
After carving, a light source (traditionally a candle) is placed inside the pumpkin and the top is put back into place. The light is normally inserted to illuminate the design from the inside and add an extra measure of spookiness. Sometimes a chimney is carved, too. It is possible to create surprisingly artistic designs, be they simple or intricate in nature.
Where is the event?
Reformation Day
October 31, 2015 in the World
Reformation Day takes place on October 31, 2015. Reformation Day is a religious holiday celebrated alongside All Hallows’ Eve, in remembrance of the Reformation, particularly by Lutheran and some Reformed church communities.
In the United States churches often transfer the holiday, so that it falls on the Sunday (called Reformation Sunday) on or before October 31, with All Saints’ Day moved to the Sunday on or after November 1. Reformation Day is a civic holiday in Slovenia and in the German states of Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia. It is also a national holiday in Chile since 2009.
The liturgical color of the day is red, which represents the Holy Spirit and the Martyrs of the Christian Church. Luther’s hymn, A Mighty Fortress is our God is traditionally sung on this day. It is also traditional in some Lutheran schools for schoolchildren to hold Reformation Day plays or pageants that re-enact scenes from the life of Martin Luther.
Where is Reformation Day?
Historical Events on 31st October:
445 BC – Ezra reads the Book of the Law to the Israelites in Jerusalem (see Nehemiah 9:1, NLTse)
1517 – Martin Luther posts 95 theses on Wittenberg church – precipitates the Protestant Reformation
1587 – Leiden University Library opens its doors after its founding in 1575
1815 – Sir Humphrey Davy of London patents miner’s safety lamp
1863 – The Maori Wars resumed as British forces in New Zealand led by General Duncan Cameron began their Invasion of the Waikato
1876 – Great Backerganj Cyclone of 1876 ravages British India (Modern-day Bangladesh), resulting in over 200,000 human deaths
1888 – Scottish vet John Boyd Dunlop patents pneumatic bicycle tyre
1892 – Arthur Conan Doyle publishes The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes
1917 – World War I: Battle of Beersheba in southern Palestine- “last successful cavalry charge in history”
1923 – 160 consecutive days of 100 degrees F begin at Marble Bar, Australia
1940 – Battle of Britain, fought between the RAF and Luftwaffe over the English Channel and southern England, ends
1941 – Mount Rushmore Monument is completed
1952 – 1st thermonuclear bomb detonated at Marshall Islands
1954 – Algerian Revolution against French begins
1960 – Cyclone hits coast of Gulf of Bengal; about 10,000 die
1980 – Polish government recognizes Solidarity trade union
1984 – Puerto Rican tanker ‘San Francisco’ explodes spilling 2 million gallons of oil as ship caught fire
1992 – Roman Catholic church reinstates Galileo Galilei after 359 years
1999 – Roman Catholic Church and Lutheran Church leaders sign the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification, ending a centuries-old doctrinal dispute over the nature of faith and salvation
2000 – The last Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) machine was shut down
2011 – The world population reaches 7 billion inhabitants according to the United Nations

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